Login to ESXi with Domain User | VMware ESXi Active Directory Authentication

Configuring VMware ESXi for Active Directory (AD) authentication involves joining the ESXi host to the Active Directory domain and configuring user permissions accordingly. Here are the steps:

1. Access the ESXi Host:

  • Connect to the ESXi host using the vSphere Client or vSphere Web Client.

2. Configure DNS Settings:

  • Ensure that the DNS settings on the ESXi host are correctly configured, and it can resolve the Active Directory domain controller’s name. You can set the DNS configuration in the ESXi host under “Networking” > “TCP/IP Configuration.”

3. Join ESXi Host to Active Directory:

  • In the vSphere Client, navigate to the “Host” in the inventory and select the “Configure” tab.
  • Under the “System” section, select “Authentication Services.”
  • Click “Join Domain” or “Properties” depending on your ESXi version.
  • Enter the domain information, including the domain name, username, and password with the necessary permissions to join the domain.
  • Click “Join Domain” or “OK.”


  • Domain: example.com
  • Username: domain_admin
  • Password: ********

4. Verify Domain Join:

  • After joining the domain, you should see a success message. If not, check the credentials and network connectivity.

5. Configure Permission:

  • Go to the “Permissions” tab in the “Host” section.
  • Add the AD user account to the appropriate role (e.g., Administrator or a custom role).

Example (PowerCLI):

New-VIPermission -Principal "EXAMPLE\domain_user" -Role "Admin" -Entity $esxiHost

6. Test AD Authentication:

  • Log out of the vSphere Client and log in using an Active Directory account. Use the format “DOMAIN\username” or “username@domain.com” depending on your environment.


  • Server: esxi.example.com
  • Username: example\domain_user
  • Password: ********

7. Troubleshooting:

  • If authentication fails, check the ESXi logs for any error messages related to authentication or domain joining.
  • Ensure that time synchronization is correct between the ESXi host and the domain controller.
  • Verify that the Active Directory user account has the necessary permissions.

Note: Always refer to the official VMware documentation for your specific ESXi version for the most accurate and up-to-date information. The steps might slightly differ based on the ESXi version you are using.

Fortigate Active Directory Integration

Hello everyone , in this video I will integrate my fortigate firewall with windows active directory , by doing this I can write the policies based on logged on users to their desktops , for example for one security group I can write a policy that can be access to facebook and for another group facebook will be blocked , or allow internet just for specific users that raised in security. Writing policies is depend on your environment.

1. Understanding Active Directory:

  • Active Directory is a Microsoft directory service that stores information about objects on a network, such as users, computers, groups, and more.
  • It provides centralized authentication and authorization services for network resources.

2. Purpose of Integration:

  • Integrating FortiGate with Active Directory helps streamline user authentication and access control for network resources.
  • It simplifies user management by allowing administrators to use AD user accounts for firewall policies.

3. Steps for FortiGate Active Directory Integration:

a. Configuration in Active Directory: – Ensure your Active Directory is properly configured with user accounts, groups, and organizational units (OUs).

b. FortiGate Web Interface Access: – Access the FortiGate web interface using a web browser.

c. Create a New LDAP Server Object: – Navigate to the “System” menu and select “Authentication” > “LDAP Servers.” – Click “Create New” to add a new LDAP server object. – Configure the LDAP server settings, including the server’s IP address or hostname, port (typically 389 for LDAP, 636 for LDAPS), and authentication credentials (usually a service account in AD).

d. Test LDAP Server Connectivity: – After configuring the LDAP server object, you can test the connectivity to ensure FortiGate can communicate with your AD server.

e. Create LDAP Authentication Group: – Go to “User & Device” > “User Definition” > “LDAP Servers.” – Create an LDAP authentication group and specify the LDAP server you created earlier.

f. Define Firewall Policies: – Create firewall policies that use LDAP authentication groups for user-based access control. – For example, you can define policies that allow or deny access to specific resources based on user group membership.

g. User Authentication: – When a user attempts to access a network resource, FortiGate will use the LDAP server to verify the user’s credentials. – Users will need to enter their AD username and password for authentication.

4. Additional Considerations:

  • Security: Ensure secure communication between FortiGate and Active Directory by using LDAPS (LDAP over SSL/TLS) for encrypted communication.
  • User Mapping: FortiGate can map AD groups to local FortiGate groups, simplifying policy management.
  • Fallback Mechanisms: Configure fallback authentication methods in case the LDAP server is unreachable or for users not in AD.

5. Monitoring and Maintenance:

  • Regularly monitor the integration for any issues, such as LDAP server connectivity problems or changes in AD group memberships.
  • Keep FortiGate and Active Directory servers up-to-date with security patches.

Install And Configuration Active Directory Cluster

1. Preparing the Environment:

  • Ensure that both servers meet the hardware and software requirements for Windows Server and Active Directory.
  • Assign static IP addresses to each server.
  • Ensure that DNS is properly configured and that both servers can resolve each other’s names.

2. Installing Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS):

  • Open Server Manager on both servers.
  • Select “Add roles and features” and proceed with the installation wizard.
  • Select “Active Directory Domain Services” as the role to install.
  • Complete the AD DS installation wizard, which will include promoting the server to a domain controller.

3. Configuring DNS:

  • Ensure that DNS is installed on both servers.
  • Configure DNS zones to replicate across all DNS servers in the domain.

4. Installing the Failover Clustering Feature:

  • Open Server Manager on both servers.
  • Select “Add roles and features” and proceed with the installation wizard.
  • Select “Failover Clustering” as the feature to install.

5. Creating the Cluster:

  • Open Failover Cluster Manager on one of the servers.
  • Click on “Create Cluster” and follow the wizard.
  • Add both servers to the cluster.
  • Configure cluster settings such as the cluster name and IP address.

6. Configuring Active Directory as a Clustered Service:

  • In Failover Cluster Manager, right-click on “Services and Applications” and select “Configure a Service or Application.”
  • Select “Active Directory Domain Services” as the service to configure.
  • Follow the wizard to configure AD DS as a clustered service.

7. Configuring Quorum:

  • Configure a quorum witness to avoid split-brain scenarios. This can be done using a disk witness, file share witness, or cloud witness, depending on your environment and requirements.

8. Testing Failover:

  • Perform a failover test to ensure that the cluster functions correctly.
  • Use the Failover Cluster Manager to initiate a failover and verify that AD services remain available during the failover process.

9. Monitoring and Maintenance:

  • Regularly monitor the cluster using Failover Cluster Manager to ensure it remains healthy.
  • Perform regular maintenance tasks, such as applying updates and patches, to keep the cluster secure and up-to-date.

Following these steps will help you set up an Active Directory cluster for high availability and fault tolerance in your environment.