Proxmox Cluster | Free Virtualization with HA Feature | Step by Step

    1. Cluster Configuration:
      • Nodes: A Proxmox cluster consists of multiple nodes, which are physical servers running Proxmox VE.
      • Networking: Nodes in a Proxmox cluster should be connected to a common network. A private network for internal communication and a public network for client access are typically configured.
      • Shared Storage: Shared storage is crucial for a Proxmox cluster to enable features like live migration and high availability. This can be achieved through technologies like NFS, iSCSI, or Ceph.
    2. High Availability (HA):
      • Proxmox VE includes a feature called HA, which ensures that critical VMs are automatically restarted on another node in the event of a node failure.
      • HA relies on fencing mechanisms to isolate a failed node from the cluster and prevent split-brain scenarios. This can be achieved through power fencing (e.g., IPMI, iLO, iDRAC) or network fencing (e.g., switch port blocking).
      • When a node fails, the HA manager on the remaining nodes detects the failure and initiates the restart of the affected VMs on healthy nodes.
    3. Corosync and Pacemaker:
      • Proxmox VE uses Corosync as the messaging layer and Pacemaker as the cluster resource manager. These components ensure that cluster nodes can communicate effectively and coordinate resource management.
      • Corosync provides a reliable communication channel between nodes, while Pacemaker manages the resources (VMs, containers, services) in the cluster and ensures they are highly available.
    4. Resource Management:
      • Proxmox clusters allow for dynamic resource allocation, allowing VMs and containers to use resources based on demand.
      • Memory and CPU resources can be allocated and adjusted for each VM or container, and live migration allows these resources to be moved between nodes without downtime.
    5. Backup and Restore:
      • Proxmox includes backup and restore functionality, allowing administrators to create scheduled backups of VMs and containers.
      • Backups can be stored locally or on remote storage, providing flexibility in backup storage options.
    6. Monitoring and Logging:
      • Proxmox provides monitoring and logging capabilities to help administrators track the performance and health of the cluster.
      • The web interface includes dashboards and graphs for monitoring resource usage, as well as logs for tracking cluster events.
    7. Updates and Maintenance:
      • Proxmox clusters can be updated and maintained using the web interface or command-line tools. Updates can be applied to individual nodes or the entire cluster.

    Setup Free Firewall at Home or Office, Install and Configure pfSense

    1. Download pfSense:
      • Go to the pfSense website ( and download the appropriate installation image for your hardware. Choose between the Community Edition (CE) or pfSense Plus.
    2. Create Installation Media:
      • Burn the downloaded image to a CD/DVD or create a bootable USB drive using software like Rufus (for Windows) or dd (for Linux).
    3. Boot from Installation Media:
      • Insert the installation media into the computer where you want to install pfSense and boot from it. You may need to change the boot order in the BIOS settings.
    4. Install pfSense:
      • Follow the on-screen instructions to install pfSense. You’ll be asked to select the installation mode (e.g., Quick/Easy Install, Custom Install), configure network interfaces, set up disk partitions, and create an admin password.
    5. Reboot:
      • Once the installation is complete, remove the installation media and reboot the computer.


    1. Initial Setup:
      • After rebooting, pfSense will start up and present you with a console menu.
      • Use the keyboard to select ‘1’ to boot pfSense in multi-user mode.
    2. Access the Web Interface:
      • Open a web browser on a computer connected to the same network as pfSense.
      • Enter the IP address of the pfSense firewall in the address bar (default is
      • Log in with the username ‘admin’ and the password you set during installation.
    3. Initial Configuration Wizard:
      • The first time you access the web interface, you’ll be guided through the initial configuration wizard.
      • Set the WAN and LAN interfaces, configure the LAN IP address, set the time zone, and configure the admin password.
    4. Configure Interfaces:
      • Navigate to ‘Interfaces’ in the web interface to configure additional interfaces if needed (e.g., DMZ, OPT interfaces). Assign interfaces and configure IP addresses.
    5. Firewall Rules:
      • Set up firewall rules under ‘Firewall’ > ‘Rules’ to allow or block traffic between interfaces. Configure rules for the WAN, LAN, and any additional interfaces.
    6. NAT (Network Address Translation):
      • Configure NAT rules under ‘Firewall’ > ‘NAT’ to translate private IP addresses to public IP addresses. Set up Port Forwarding, 1:1 NAT, or Outbound NAT rules as needed.
    7. DHCP Server:
      • If you want pfSense to act as a DHCP server, configure DHCP settings under ‘Services’ > ‘DHCP Server’. Set up the range of IP addresses to lease, DNS servers, and other DHCP options.
    8. VPN:
      • Set up VPN connections (e.g., OpenVPN, IPsec) under ‘VPN’ > ‘IPsec’ or ‘OpenVPN’. Configure VPN settings, certificates, and user authentication.
    9. Packages:
      • Install additional packages for extra functionality under ‘System’ > ‘Package Manager’. Popular packages include Snort (for Intrusion Detection/Prevention), Squid (for web caching), and HAProxy (for load balancing).
    10. Save Configuration:
      • Click on ‘Apply Changes’ to save your configuration.
    11. Final Steps:
      • Test your configuration to ensure everything is working as expected.
      • Consider setting up backups of your pfSense configuration under ‘Diagnostics’ > ‘Backup & Restore’.

    vCenter Installation and Configuration


    1. Hardware Requirements:
      • Verify that your hardware meets the requirements for vCenter installation.
      • Ensure that the hardware is on the VMware Compatibility Guide.
    2. Software Requirements:
      • Download the vCenter Server installer from the VMware website.
    3. Database:
      • Decide whether to use the embedded PostgreSQL database or an external database like Microsoft SQL Server or Oracle.

    Installation Steps:

    1. Run the Installer:
      • Mount the vCenter Server ISO or run the installer directly.
      • Select “vCenter Server” from the installer menu.
    2. Introduction:
      • Click “Next” on the introduction screen.
    3. Accept the License Agreement:
      • Read and accept the license agreement.
    4. Select Deployment Type:
      • Choose between a vCenter Server with an embedded Platform Services Controller (PSC) or an external PSC.
    5. System Configuration:
      • Enter the system name and set the Single Sign-On (SSO) password.
      • Configure the network settings.
    6. Select Database:
      • Choose between the embedded PostgreSQL database or an external database.
      • If using an external database, provide the database connection details.
    7. SSO Configuration:
      • Configure the Single Sign-On (SSO) domain and site name.
    8. Inventory Size:
      • Select the size of your inventory (tiny, small, medium, large, or x-large).
    9. vCenter Service Account:
      • Provide a username and password for the vCenter Server service account.
    10. Select Installation Location:
      • Choose the installation directory for vCenter.
    11. Configure CEIP:
      • Choose whether to join the Customer Experience Improvement Program.
    12. Ready to Install:
      • Review the configuration settings and click “Install” to begin the installation.
    13. Installation Progress:
      • Monitor the installation progress.
    14. Complete the Installation:
      • Once the installation is complete, click “Finish.”

    Post-Installation Steps:

    1. Access vCenter Server:
      • Open a web browser and navigate to the vCenter Server URL (https://<vCenterServer>/vsphere-client).
    2. Configure vCenter Services:
      • Log in using the SSO administrator credentials.
      • Configure additional vCenter services if necessary.
    3. License vCenter Server:
      • Apply the license key to vCenter Server.
    4. Add ESXi Hosts:
      • In the vSphere Client, add the ESXi hosts to the vCenter inventory.
    5. Create Datacenter and Clusters:
      • Organize your infrastructure by creating datacenters and clusters.
    6. Configure Networking and Storage:
      • Set up networking and storage configurations.
    7. Create Virtual Machines:
      • Start creating virtual machines within the vCenter environment.
    8. Set Up Backup and Monitoring:
      • Implement backup solutions and configure monitoring for your vSphere environment.

    Remember to refer to the official VMware documentation for the version you are installing, as steps may vary slightly based on the specific release.

    FortiGate Radius Configuration

    Hello everyone , in this video I am going to integrate fortigate firewall with radius server , after that fortigate administrators can login and manage fortigate by using their active directory username and password.

    Step 1: Log into FortiGate

    Access your FortiGate device through a web browser or SSH client.

    Step 2: Navigate to System Settings

    1. Go to System > Settings in the FortiGate web interface.

    Step 3: Configure RADIUS Server

    1. Under Authentication Settings, click Create New to add a RADIUS server.
    2. Fill in the following details:
      • Name: A descriptive name for the RADIUS server.
      • Server: Enter the IP address or hostname of your RADIUS server.
      • Secret: This is a shared secret key that must match the one configured on the RADIUS server for authentication. It ensures secure communication between FortiGate and the RADIUS server.
      • Authentication Port: Usually set to 1812 for RADIUS authentication.
      • Accounting Port: Typically set to 1813 for RADIUS accounting, if needed.
    3. Click OK to save the RADIUS server configuration.

    Step 4: Define a RADIUS Server Group

    1. Under Authentication Settings, click Create New to add a RADIUS server group.
    2. Give the group a descriptive name to identify it later.
    3. Add the previously configured RADIUS server(s) to the group. You can use multiple RADIUS servers for redundancy and load balancing.
      • Select the RADIUS servers from the list and use the right arrow button to move them to the “Selected” column.
    4. Click OK to save the RADIUS server group.

    Step 5: Configure User Groups for RADIUS Authentication

    1. If you want to use RADIUS for user authentication, navigate to User & Device > User Groups.
    2. Edit an existing user group or create a new one based on your needs.
    3. In the user group settings, go to the Remote Groups section and select the RADIUS server group you created in Step 4.
    • This configuration ensures that users in this group will be authenticated against the RADIUS server.

    Step 6: Testing

    1. It’s essential to test your RADIUS configuration to verify that it’s functioning correctly. You can do this by attempting to log in using user accounts associated with the RADIUS server.

    Step 7: Monitoring and Troubleshooting

    1. FortiGate provides various monitoring tools under Log & Report where you can review RADIUS authentication and accounting logs. These logs can be instrumental in troubleshooting any issues with the RADIUS configuration.

    Step 8: Additional Configuration

    1. Depending on your specific requirements, you may need to configure additional options such as RADIUS accounting, timeout settings, and other advanced features. Consult the FortiGate documentation for comprehensive details on these options.

    Step 9: Save Configuration

    1. Make sure to save your configuration changes to ensure they are preserved across device reboots and updates.

    By following these detailed steps, you can set up FortiGate to authenticate and authorize users through a RADIUS server effectively. This configuration enhances network security by centralizing user authentication and access control.

    FortiGate Automation-Send Microsoft Teams Notification

    Hello every one , in this video I will introduce how can you integrate your fortigate firewall with Microsoft teams and get notification in case of admin login failed, Also I will describe fortigate automation service to do some actions for triggered events.

    1. Configure Microsoft Teams Incoming Webhook:

    • Log in to your Microsoft Teams account and navigate to the channel where you want to receive notifications.
    • Click on the three dots (…) next to the channel name and select “Connectors.”
    • Search for “Incoming Webhook” and click on it to configure.
    • Give your webhook a name and customize its settings, such as the icon that will be displayed with messages.
    • Once configured, a unique webhook URL will be generated. Copy and save this URL, as you’ll need it to send notifications from FortiGate to Teams.

    2. Configure FortiGate Automation:

    • Access your FortiGate firewall’s web interface or CLI.

    a. Define Triggering Events:

    – Depending on your specific use case, you’ll want to define the events or conditions that trigger notifications. For example, you might want to send notifications when: – A critical security event is detected (e.g., intrusion attempts, malware activity). – A specific network condition is met (e.g., bandwidth threshold exceeded). – Configuration changes are made on the firewall.

    b. Create a Custom Script or Action:

    • FortiGate Automation typically involves creating custom scripts or actions using FortiScript (for CLI-based automation) or FortiManager (for GUI-based automation).
    • Here’s an example of a custom FortiScript that sends a notification to Microsoft Teams using the webhook URL:
      # Define the Microsoft Teams webhook URL
      set teams_webhook_url "https://yourteamswebhookurl"
      # Define the message to send
      set message "A critical security event has been detected on FortiGate!"
      # Construct the JSON payload
      set json_payload '{"text": "'$message'"}'
      # Send the HTTP POST request to Microsoft Teams
      execute log "Sending Microsoft Teams notification..."
      execute external "post $teams_webhook_url" $json_payload

    c. Customize the Message:

    - You can customize the message within the script to include details about the triggered event, such as date, time, event type, and any relevant information.

    3. Test the Automation:

    • To test the automation, trigger the event or condition that should initiate the notification. Check Microsoft Teams to ensure that the message is sent and received correctly.

    4. Enable the Automation:

    • Once you have successfully tested the automation and are confident in its functionality, you can enable it in your FortiGate configuration.

    5. Monitoring and Fine-Tuning:

    • Regularly monitor the automation to ensure that it continues to work as expected. If needed, you can make adjustments to the script or action to meet changing requirements or address any issues that may arise.

    By following these detailed steps, you can set up a robust automation system within FortiGate to send Microsoft Teams notifications whenever specific events occur, helping you stay informed about critical network and security events in real-time.

    Tagged Untagged Switch Configuration

    Hello everyone , in this video I will describe and configure vlan on hp switch and assign vlans to ports as access and trunk. In HP (Hewlett-Packard) networking switches, “tagged” and “untagged” are terms commonly used to describe how VLANs (Virtual LANs) are handled on switch ports. Tagged ports are used to carry traffic for multiple VLANs simultaneously. These ports are typically used to interconnect switches or to connect devices that need to communicate with multiple VLANs. Tagged ports are also known as “trunk” ports in Cisco networking terminology. Untagged ports are used to connect end-user devices, such as computers, printers, or IP phones, to the network. Each untagged port is associated with a specific VLAN. Untagged ports are also known as “access” ports in cisco networking terminology.

    Tagged Ports (Trunk Ports): Tagged ports are used to interconnect switches, routers, or other networking devices and carry traffic for multiple VLANs. They are configured with additional information called VLAN tags, which helps identify which VLAN each Ethernet frame belongs to. Here are the key details:

    • Port Configuration: To configure a port as tagged (trunk), you typically need to access the switch’s command-line interface or web-based management interface.

    In Cisco devices, you might use commands like:

    interface GigabitEthernet0/1

    switchport mode trunk

    switchport trunk allowed vlan 10,20,30

    switchport trunk native vlan 10

    In HP/Aruba switches, you might use commands like:

    vlan 10

    tagged 1-48

    • VLAN Membership: You specify which VLANs can traverse the tagged port using the “switchport trunk allowed vlan” (Cisco) or “tagged” (HP/Aruba) command. In the example above, VLANs 10, 20, and 30 are allowed to traverse the trunk port.
    • Native VLAN: The native VLAN is used for untagged frames on a tagged port. In the Cisco example, VLAN 10 is the native VLAN. Any untagged traffic entering the port is treated as part of this VLAN.

    Untagged Ports (Access Ports): Untagged ports are used to connect end-user devices, such as computers, phones, or printers, to the network. They are associated with a single VLAN, and traffic on these ports is not tagged with VLAN information. Here are the key details:

    • Port Configuration: To configure a port as untagged (access), you typically follow a similar process as configuring tagged ports through the switch’s management interface or CLI.

    In Cisco devices, you might use commands like:

    interface FastEthernet0/1

    switchport mode access

    switchport access vlan 10

    In HP/Aruba switches, you might use commands like:

    vlan 10

    untagged 1-48

    • VLAN Assignment: You specify which VLAN the port is associated with using the “switchport access vlan” (Cisco) or “untagged” (HP/Aruba) command. In the examples above, the port is assigned to VLAN 10.

    Use Cases:

    • Tagged Ports: Tagged ports are used for scenarios where you need to carry traffic for multiple VLANs between network devices. Common use cases include connecting switches together, connecting to routers that perform inter-VLAN routing, and connecting to virtualization hosts where multiple virtual networks exist.
    • Untagged Ports: Untagged ports are used to connect end devices to the network. For example, a computer in a specific department would connect to an untagged port in that department’s VLAN, ensuring that all its traffic is part of that VLAN.

    In summary, configuring tagged and untagged ports correctly is crucial for effective VLAN management. Tagged ports allow traffic from multiple VLANs to traverse a single physical link, while untagged ports connect end devices to a specific VLAN. This segmentation helps in maintaining network security, optimizing traffic flow, and organizing network resources.

    Install and Config Mikrotik Router

    Hello everyone, in this video I am going to install mikrotik router os on hyper-v and after that I will be configure routerOS to provide internet access for clients by configuring dhcp server , create a nat rule , setup pptp vpn server. Ok lets start

    1. Hardware Requirements:
      • MikroTik router device (such as a MikroTik RouterBOARD)
      • Ethernet cables
      • Computer with an Ethernet port
      • Power source for the router
    2. Initial Setup:
      • Connect the MikroTik router to a power source and to your computer using an Ethernet cable. The router usually has a default IP address for the initial configuration, such as Ensure that your computer is set to obtain an IP address automatically through DHCP.
    3. Access the Router:
      • Open a web browser on your computer and enter the default IP address of the MikroTik router in the address bar (e.g.,
      • You should see the MikroTik login page. The default username is “admin,” and there is no password by default. It is crucial to change the default password during the initial setup for security reasons.
    4. Basic Configuration:
      • Once logged in, you can start configuring the router. Here are some basic configurations:
        • Set a strong password for the “admin” user.
        • Set the router’s hostname.
        • Configure the time zone.
        • Set the DNS servers.
    5. LAN Configuration:
      • Configure the LAN (Local Area Network) settings, including the IP address and subnet mask for the router’s LAN interface.
      • You can create DHCP server pools to assign IP addresses to devices on your local network automatically.
    6. WAN Configuration:
      • Configure the WAN (Wide Area Network) interface, which could be connected to your internet service provider (ISP). This often involves configuring the IP address, subnet mask, gateway, and DNS servers provided by your ISP.
      • Set up NAT (Network Address Translation) if you have multiple devices on your LAN and want them to share a single public IP address.
    7. Firewall Configuration:
      • Create firewall rules to control incoming and outgoing traffic. MikroTik routers have a powerful firewall system that allows you to filter and control traffic based on various criteria.
    8. Security and Access Control:
      • Configure access control lists (ACLs) to restrict or allow specific traffic.
      • Enable SSH or secure Winbox access for remote management and disable insecure services like Telnet.
    9. Additional Features:
      • Depending on your needs, you can configure various additional features such as VPNs, VLANs, QoS (Quality of Service), routing protocols, and more.
    10. Save and Backup Configuration:
      • After configuring your MikroTik router, make sure to save your configuration settings and create regular backups. This can be done through the router’s web interface.
    11. Testing:
      • Test your network to ensure everything is working as expected. Check internet connectivity, LAN connectivity, and any specific services or features you’ve configured.
    12. Documentation:
      • Keep thorough documentation of your MikroTik router’s configuration, including any changes you make over time. This will be helpful for troubleshooting and future reference.