Proxmox Cluster | Free Virtualization with HA Feature | Step by Step

    1. Cluster Configuration:
      • Nodes: A Proxmox cluster consists of multiple nodes, which are physical servers running Proxmox VE.
      • Networking: Nodes in a Proxmox cluster should be connected to a common network. A private network for internal communication and a public network for client access are typically configured.
      • Shared Storage: Shared storage is crucial for a Proxmox cluster to enable features like live migration and high availability. This can be achieved through technologies like NFS, iSCSI, or Ceph.
    2. High Availability (HA):
      • Proxmox VE includes a feature called HA, which ensures that critical VMs are automatically restarted on another node in the event of a node failure.
      • HA relies on fencing mechanisms to isolate a failed node from the cluster and prevent split-brain scenarios. This can be achieved through power fencing (e.g., IPMI, iLO, iDRAC) or network fencing (e.g., switch port blocking).
      • When a node fails, the HA manager on the remaining nodes detects the failure and initiates the restart of the affected VMs on healthy nodes.
    3. Corosync and Pacemaker:
      • Proxmox VE uses Corosync as the messaging layer and Pacemaker as the cluster resource manager. These components ensure that cluster nodes can communicate effectively and coordinate resource management.
      • Corosync provides a reliable communication channel between nodes, while Pacemaker manages the resources (VMs, containers, services) in the cluster and ensures they are highly available.
    4. Resource Management:
      • Proxmox clusters allow for dynamic resource allocation, allowing VMs and containers to use resources based on demand.
      • Memory and CPU resources can be allocated and adjusted for each VM or container, and live migration allows these resources to be moved between nodes without downtime.
    5. Backup and Restore:
      • Proxmox includes backup and restore functionality, allowing administrators to create scheduled backups of VMs and containers.
      • Backups can be stored locally or on remote storage, providing flexibility in backup storage options.
    6. Monitoring and Logging:
      • Proxmox provides monitoring and logging capabilities to help administrators track the performance and health of the cluster.
      • The web interface includes dashboards and graphs for monitoring resource usage, as well as logs for tracking cluster events.
    7. Updates and Maintenance:
      • Proxmox clusters can be updated and maintained using the web interface or command-line tools. Updates can be applied to individual nodes or the entire cluster.

    Login to ESXi with Domain User | VMware ESXi Active Directory Authentication

    Configuring VMware ESXi for Active Directory (AD) authentication involves joining the ESXi host to the Active Directory domain and configuring user permissions accordingly. Here are the steps:

    1. Access the ESXi Host:

    • Connect to the ESXi host using the vSphere Client or vSphere Web Client.

    2. Configure DNS Settings:

    • Ensure that the DNS settings on the ESXi host are correctly configured, and it can resolve the Active Directory domain controller’s name. You can set the DNS configuration in the ESXi host under “Networking” > “TCP/IP Configuration.”

    3. Join ESXi Host to Active Directory:

    • In the vSphere Client, navigate to the “Host” in the inventory and select the “Configure” tab.
    • Under the “System” section, select “Authentication Services.”
    • Click “Join Domain” or “Properties” depending on your ESXi version.
    • Enter the domain information, including the domain name, username, and password with the necessary permissions to join the domain.
    • Click “Join Domain” or “OK.”


    • Domain:
    • Username: domain_admin
    • Password: ********

    4. Verify Domain Join:

    • After joining the domain, you should see a success message. If not, check the credentials and network connectivity.

    5. Configure Permission:

    • Go to the “Permissions” tab in the “Host” section.
    • Add the AD user account to the appropriate role (e.g., Administrator or a custom role).

    Example (PowerCLI):

    New-VIPermission -Principal "EXAMPLE\domain_user" -Role "Admin" -Entity $esxiHost

    6. Test AD Authentication:

    • Log out of the vSphere Client and log in using an Active Directory account. Use the format “DOMAIN\username” or “” depending on your environment.


    • Server:
    • Username: example\domain_user
    • Password: ********

    7. Troubleshooting:

    • If authentication fails, check the ESXi logs for any error messages related to authentication or domain joining.
    • Ensure that time synchronization is correct between the ESXi host and the domain controller.
    • Verify that the Active Directory user account has the necessary permissions.

    Note: Always refer to the official VMware documentation for your specific ESXi version for the most accurate and up-to-date information. The steps might slightly differ based on the ESXi version you are using.