Free FortiGate Install and Configuration | Create Fortigate LAB for Training

1. Downloading Free FortiGate VM

Fortinet offers a free version of FortiGate VM for various hypervisors including VMware, Hyper-V, KVM, and more. Follow these steps to download it:

  1. Visit the Fortinet Support Portal:
    • Go to Fortinet Support.
    • Log in or create a new account if you don’t have one.
  2. Download the FortiGate VM:
    • Navigate to the “Download” section.
    • Select “VM Images” and choose the appropriate hypervisor (e.g., VMware ESXi, Microsoft Hyper-V, etc.).
    • Download the FortiGate VM package.

2. Deploying FortiGate VM on Your Hypervisor

The deployment process may vary slightly depending on your hypervisor. Below are steps for VMware ESXi:

  1. Deploy OVF Template:
    • Open your VMware vSphere Client.
    • Right-click on your desired host or cluster and select “Deploy OVF Template.”
    • Follow the wizard, selecting the downloaded FortiGate VM OVF file.
    • Configure the VM settings (name, datastore, network mapping, etc.).
    • Finish the deployment process.
  2. Power On the VM:
    • Once the deployment is complete, power on the FortiGate VM.

3. Initial Configuration

  1. Access the FortiGate Console:
    • Use the vSphere Client to open the console of the FortiGate VM.
    • The initial login credentials are usually admin for the username and a blank password.
  2. Set the Password:
    • You will be prompted to set a new password for the admin user.
  3. Configure the Management Interface:
    • Assign an IP address to the management interface.
    • Example commands:

config system interface
edit port1
set ip
set allowaccess http https ping ssh

  1. Access the Web Interface:
    • Open a web browser and navigate to https://<management-ip>.
    • Log in with the admin credentials.

4. Basic Setup via Web Interface

  1. System Settings:
    • Navigate to System > Settings.
    • Set the hostname, time zone, and DNS servers.
  2. Network Configuration:
    • Configure additional interfaces if needed under Network > Interfaces.
    • Create VLANs, set up DHCP, etc.
  3. Security Policies:
    • Define security policies to control traffic flow under Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
    • Set source and destination interfaces, addresses, and services.
  4. Enable Features:
    • Enable and configure additional features like IPS, Antivirus, Web Filtering, etc., under Security Profiles.

5. Connecting to the Internet

  1. WAN Interface Configuration:
    • Configure the WAN interface with the appropriate settings (static IP, DHCP, PPPoE, etc.).
  2. Routing:
    • Set up a default route under Network > Static Routes pointing to the WAN gateway.
  3. NAT Configuration:
    • Configure NAT settings under Policy & Objects > NAT.

6. Licensing

  • The free version of FortiGate VM comes with limited features. For full functionality, you may need to purchase a license and activate it under System > FortiGuard.

Free Open Source Router and Firewall | How to Install VyOS and Configure OSPF: Step-by-Step Guide

VyOS Installation and Configuration Guide


VyOS is an open-source network operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux that provides software-based network routing, firewall, and VPN functionality. This guide covers the installation and configuration of VyOS, including setting up OSPF.

Installation of VyOS

1. Download VyOS ISO:

   – Go to the VyOS download page and download the ISO image of the latest stable version.

2. Create a Bootable USB Drive:

   – For Windows: Use Rufus to create a bootable USB drive.

   – For Linux/macOS: Use the `dd` command.

3. Boot from the USB Drive:

   – Insert the USB drive into your server or PC and boot from it. You may need to change the boot order in the BIOS/UEFI settings.

4. Install VyOS:

   – Once booted, you will be presented with the VyOS live environment. Log in with the default credentials:

     Username: vyos
     Password: vyos

   – To start the installation, enter:

     install image

   – Follow the prompts to select the installation disk, partitioning scheme, and other options. You will also set a password for the `vyos` user and create a GRUB bootloader.

5. Reboot:

   – After the installation completes, reboot the system and remove the USB drive. The system will boot into the installed VyOS.

Basic Configuration of VyOS

1. Log In:

   – Log in with the user `vyos` and the password you set during installation.

2. Enter Configuration Mode:


3. Set Hostname:

   set system host-name my-router

4. Configure Network Interfaces:

   – Identify the network interfaces using the `show interfaces` command.

   – Configure an interface (e.g., `eth0`) with a static IP address:

     set interfaces ethernet eth0 address ‘’

5. Configure Default Gateway:

   set protocols static route next-hop

6. Set DNS Servers:

   set system name-server
   set system name-server

7. Enable SSH:

   set service ssh port 22

Configuring OSPF

Enable OSPF

To configure OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) on VyOS:

1. Enter Configuration Mode:


2. Enable OSPF:

   set protocols ospf parameters router-id

   Replace `` with a unique router ID for the OSPF instance.

Configure OSPF on Interfaces

Specify which interfaces will participate in OSPF and their respective areas:

   set protocols ospf area 0 network
   set protocols ospf area 0 network

   Replace `` and `` with the actual network addresses of your interfaces.

Adjust OSPF Interface Parameters (Optional)

You can adjust OSPF interface parameters like cost, hello interval, and dead interval:

   set interfaces ethernet eth0 ip ospf cost 10
   set interfaces ethernet eth0 ip ospf hello-interval 10
   set interfaces ethernet eth0 ip ospf dead-interval 40

   Replace `eth0` with your actual interface name.

Commit and Save the Configuration


Example Configuration for OSPF

Here is an example configuration where two interfaces (`eth0` and `eth1`) participate in OSPF with different network segments.

Configuration for Router 1:

set interfaces ethernet eth0 address ‘’
set interfaces ethernet eth1 address ‘’

set protocols ospf parameters router-id
set protocols ospf area 0 network
set protocols ospf area 0 network


Configuration for Router 2:

set interfaces ethernet eth0 address ‘’
set interfaces ethernet eth1 address ‘’

set protocols ospf parameters router-id
set protocols ospf area 0 network
set protocols ospf area 0 network


Verifying OSPF Configuration

1. Check OSPF Neighbors:

   show ip ospf neighbor

2. Check OSPF Routes:

   show ip route ospf

3. Check OSPF Interface Status:

   show ip ospf interface

Additional OSPF Configurations

Configuring OSPF Authentication

To enhance security, you can configure OSPF authentication on the interfaces:

1. Set Authentication Type and Key:

   set interfaces ethernet eth0 ip ospf authentication message-digest
   set interfaces ethernet eth0 ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 ‘yourpassword’

   Replace `yourpassword` with a secure password.

2. Configure OSPF Area Authentication:

   set protocols ospf area 0 authentication message-digest

Configuring OSPF Redistribution

To redistribute routes from other protocols (e.g., BGP) into OSPF:

1. Set Redistribution:

   set protocols ospf redistribute bgp

Troubleshooting OSPF

1. Check OSPF Process:

   show ip ospf

2. Check OSPF Logs:

   show log

3. Debug OSPF:

   monitor protocol ospf

Proxmox VM Live Migration | Migrate VM to another host without Downtime

  1. Cluster Setup: Ensure that your Proxmox hosts are part of the same cluster. A Proxmox cluster consists of multiple Proxmox VE servers (nodes) combined to offer high availability and load balancing to virtual machines. Nodes in a cluster share resources such as storage and can migrate VMs between each other.
  2. Shared Storage: Live migration requires shared storage accessible by both the source and target hosts. This shared storage can be implemented using technologies like NFS, iSCSI, or Ceph. Shared storage allows the VM’s disk images and configuration files to be accessed by any node in the cluster.
  3. Migration Prerequisites: Before initiating a live migration, ensure that the target host has enough resources (CPU, memory, storage) to accommodate the migrating VM. Proxmox will check these prerequisites before allowing the migration to proceed.
  4. Initiating Migration: In the Proxmox web interface (or using the Proxmox command-line interface), select the VM you want to migrate and choose the “Migrate” option. Proxmox will guide you through the migration process.
  5. Migration Process:
    • Pre-Copy Phase: Proxmox starts by copying the memory pages of the VM from the source host to the target host. This is done iteratively, with the majority of memory pages copied in the initial phase.
    • Stopping Point: At a certain point during the migration, Proxmox determines a stopping point. This is the point at which the VM will be paused briefly to perform a final synchronization of memory pages and state information.
    • Pause and Synchronization: The VM is paused on the source host, and any remaining memory pages and state information are transferred to the target host. This pause is usually very brief, minimizing downtime.
    • Completion: Once the final synchronization is complete, the VM is resumed on the target host. From the perspective of the VM and its users, the migration is seamless, and the VM continues to run without interruption on the target host.
  6. Post-Migration: After the migration is complete, the VM is running on the target host. You can verify this in the Proxmox web interface or using the command-line tools. The source host frees up resources previously used by the migrated VM.
  7. High Availability (HA): In a Proxmox cluster with HA enabled, if a host fails, VMs running on that host can be automatically migrated to other hosts in the cluster, ensuring minimal downtime.

Overall, Proxmox VM live migration is a powerful feature that enables you to move virtual machines between hosts in a Proxmox cluster with minimal downtime, providing flexibility and high availability for your virtualized environment.

Proxmox Cluster | Free Virtualization with HA Feature | Step by Step

    1. Cluster Configuration:
      • Nodes: A Proxmox cluster consists of multiple nodes, which are physical servers running Proxmox VE.
      • Networking: Nodes in a Proxmox cluster should be connected to a common network. A private network for internal communication and a public network for client access are typically configured.
      • Shared Storage: Shared storage is crucial for a Proxmox cluster to enable features like live migration and high availability. This can be achieved through technologies like NFS, iSCSI, or Ceph.
    2. High Availability (HA):
      • Proxmox VE includes a feature called HA, which ensures that critical VMs are automatically restarted on another node in the event of a node failure.
      • HA relies on fencing mechanisms to isolate a failed node from the cluster and prevent split-brain scenarios. This can be achieved through power fencing (e.g., IPMI, iLO, iDRAC) or network fencing (e.g., switch port blocking).
      • When a node fails, the HA manager on the remaining nodes detects the failure and initiates the restart of the affected VMs on healthy nodes.
    3. Corosync and Pacemaker:
      • Proxmox VE uses Corosync as the messaging layer and Pacemaker as the cluster resource manager. These components ensure that cluster nodes can communicate effectively and coordinate resource management.
      • Corosync provides a reliable communication channel between nodes, while Pacemaker manages the resources (VMs, containers, services) in the cluster and ensures they are highly available.
    4. Resource Management:
      • Proxmox clusters allow for dynamic resource allocation, allowing VMs and containers to use resources based on demand.
      • Memory and CPU resources can be allocated and adjusted for each VM or container, and live migration allows these resources to be moved between nodes without downtime.
    5. Backup and Restore:
      • Proxmox includes backup and restore functionality, allowing administrators to create scheduled backups of VMs and containers.
      • Backups can be stored locally or on remote storage, providing flexibility in backup storage options.
    6. Monitoring and Logging:
      • Proxmox provides monitoring and logging capabilities to help administrators track the performance and health of the cluster.
      • The web interface includes dashboards and graphs for monitoring resource usage, as well as logs for tracking cluster events.
    7. Updates and Maintenance:
      • Proxmox clusters can be updated and maintained using the web interface or command-line tools. Updates can be applied to individual nodes or the entire cluster.

    Replace expensive VMware to Proxmox, Free Virtualization Platform | How to Install Proxmox

    1. Download Proxmox VE ISO:
    2. Create a Bootable USB Drive:
    3. Boot from USB Drive:
      • Insert the bootable USB drive into the server where you want to install Proxmox VE.
      • Power on or restart the server and boot from the USB drive. You may need to change the boot order in the BIOS settings to boot from USB.
    4. Proxmox VE Installer:
      • Once the server boots from the USB drive, you’ll see the Proxmox VE installer menu.
      • Select “Install Proxmox VE” and press Enter.
    5. Select Installation Target:
      • Select the target disk where you want to install Proxmox VE. This will typically be the server’s local disk.
      • You can choose to use the entire disk for Proxmox VE or manually partition the disk.
    6. Set Root Password:
      • Set a password for the root user of the Proxmox VE system.
    7. Configure Network:
      • Configure the network settings for Proxmox VE. This includes setting the IP address, netmask, gateway, and DNS servers.
    8. Begin Installation:
      • Review the installation summary and confirm to begin the installation process.
    9. Installation Progress:
      • The installer will copy the necessary files and install Proxmox VE on the selected disk. This may take some time depending on your hardware.
    10. Installation Complete:
      • Once the installation is complete, remove the USB drive and reboot the server.
    11. Access Proxmox VE Web Interface:
      • Open a web browser on a computer connected to the same network as the Proxmox VE server.
      • Enter the IP address of the Proxmox VE server in the address bar.
      • Log in to the Proxmox VE web interface using the root user and the password you set during installation.
    12. Configure Proxmox VE:
      • From the web interface, you can configure additional settings such as storage, networks, and backups.
    13. Create VMs and Containers:
      • Use the web interface to create virtual machines (VMs) and containers to run your applications and services.

    Setup Free Firewall at Home or Office, Install and Configure pfSense

    1. Download pfSense:
      • Go to the pfSense website ( and download the appropriate installation image for your hardware. Choose between the Community Edition (CE) or pfSense Plus.
    2. Create Installation Media:
      • Burn the downloaded image to a CD/DVD or create a bootable USB drive using software like Rufus (for Windows) or dd (for Linux).
    3. Boot from Installation Media:
      • Insert the installation media into the computer where you want to install pfSense and boot from it. You may need to change the boot order in the BIOS settings.
    4. Install pfSense:
      • Follow the on-screen instructions to install pfSense. You’ll be asked to select the installation mode (e.g., Quick/Easy Install, Custom Install), configure network interfaces, set up disk partitions, and create an admin password.
    5. Reboot:
      • Once the installation is complete, remove the installation media and reboot the computer.


    1. Initial Setup:
      • After rebooting, pfSense will start up and present you with a console menu.
      • Use the keyboard to select ‘1’ to boot pfSense in multi-user mode.
    2. Access the Web Interface:
      • Open a web browser on a computer connected to the same network as pfSense.
      • Enter the IP address of the pfSense firewall in the address bar (default is
      • Log in with the username ‘admin’ and the password you set during installation.
    3. Initial Configuration Wizard:
      • The first time you access the web interface, you’ll be guided through the initial configuration wizard.
      • Set the WAN and LAN interfaces, configure the LAN IP address, set the time zone, and configure the admin password.
    4. Configure Interfaces:
      • Navigate to ‘Interfaces’ in the web interface to configure additional interfaces if needed (e.g., DMZ, OPT interfaces). Assign interfaces and configure IP addresses.
    5. Firewall Rules:
      • Set up firewall rules under ‘Firewall’ > ‘Rules’ to allow or block traffic between interfaces. Configure rules for the WAN, LAN, and any additional interfaces.
    6. NAT (Network Address Translation):
      • Configure NAT rules under ‘Firewall’ > ‘NAT’ to translate private IP addresses to public IP addresses. Set up Port Forwarding, 1:1 NAT, or Outbound NAT rules as needed.
    7. DHCP Server:
      • If you want pfSense to act as a DHCP server, configure DHCP settings under ‘Services’ > ‘DHCP Server’. Set up the range of IP addresses to lease, DNS servers, and other DHCP options.
    8. VPN:
      • Set up VPN connections (e.g., OpenVPN, IPsec) under ‘VPN’ > ‘IPsec’ or ‘OpenVPN’. Configure VPN settings, certificates, and user authentication.
    9. Packages:
      • Install additional packages for extra functionality under ‘System’ > ‘Package Manager’. Popular packages include Snort (for Intrusion Detection/Prevention), Squid (for web caching), and HAProxy (for load balancing).
    10. Save Configuration:
      • Click on ‘Apply Changes’ to save your configuration.
    11. Final Steps:
      • Test your configuration to ensure everything is working as expected.
      • Consider setting up backups of your pfSense configuration under ‘Diagnostics’ > ‘Backup & Restore’.

    How to Run Any Specific Command or Script on Linux Startup

    1. Using cron:

    The cron method is convenient for running commands or scripts at startup. The @reboot directive in the crontab allows you to specify tasks to be run when the system starts.

    Open the crontab file

    crontab -e

    Add the following line:

    @reboot /path/to/your/

    Save and exit the editor. This ensures that your script will run each time the system reboots.

    2. Using rc.local:

    The /etc/rc.local file is traditionally used to run commands at the end of the system boot process.

    Open the rc.local file

    sudo nano /etc/rc.local

    Add your command or script just before the exit 0 line:


    Save and exit. Make sure the file is executable:

    sudo chmod +x /etc/rc.local

    This method may not be available on all distributions, as some are moving away from using rc.local in favor of systemd.

    3. Using systemd:

    Systemd is a modern init system used by many Linux distributions. You can create a systemd service to execute your script at startup.

    Create a new service file, for example, /etc/systemd/system/myscript.service:

    Description=My Startup Script



    Reload systemd and enable/start the service:

    sudo systemctl daemon-reload
    sudo systemctl enable myscript.service
    sudo systemctl start myscript.service

    This method provides more control and flexibility and is widely used in modern Linux distributions.

    4. Using ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile (for user-specific commands):

    If you want a command or script to run when a specific user logs in, you can add it to the ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile file.

    Open the .bashrc file

    nano ~/.bashrc

    Add your command or script at the end of the file:


    Save and exit the editor. This method is user-specific and will run the script when the user logs in.

    Remember to replace /path/to/your/ with the actual path to your script or command in each case. The appropriate method may vary depending on your distribution and system configuration.

    FortiGate 80F Firewall Unbox and Configure


    1. Inspect the Package:
      • Open the shipping box and check for the following components:
        • FortiGate 80F unit
        • Power adapter
        • Ethernet cables
        • Mounting hardware (if applicable)
        • Documentation and setup guide
    2. Connectivity:
      • Identify the WAN (Wide Area Network), LAN (Local Area Network), and DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) ports on the FortiGate 80F.
      • Connect the appropriate network cables to these ports based on your network architecture.
    3. Power On:
      • Connect the power adapter to the FortiGate 80F and plug it into a power source.
      • Power on the device and wait for it to complete the boot-up process. You can monitor the status using the indicator lights on the unit.

    Initial Configuration:

    1. Access Web Interface:
      • Open a web browser and enter the default IP address of the FortiGate 80F (e.g.,
      • Log in using the default credentials (usually “admin” for both username and password).
    2. Initial Setup Wizard:
      • Follow the prompts of the setup wizard to configure basic settings:
        • Set the system name and administrator password.
        • Configure the time zone and date/time settings.
    3. Network Configuration:
      • Set up the WAN and LAN interfaces:
        • Assign IP addresses to the interfaces.
        • Define DHCP settings if applicable.
        • Configure any additional interfaces based on your network design.
    4. Security Policies:
      • Define security policies to control traffic flow. This includes inbound and outbound rules based on source, destination, and services.
      • Implement firewall rules, NAT (Network Address Translation), and security profiles (antivirus, intrusion prevention, etc.).
    5. Update Firmware:
      • Check for firmware updates in the web interface.
      • Download and apply the latest firmware to ensure security patches and feature enhancements.
    6. VPN Configuration (Optional):
      • If your organization requires VPN connectivity, configure VPN settings:
        • Set up IPsec or SSL VPN tunnels.
        • Define VPN users and access policies.
    7. Monitoring and Logging:
      • Configure logging settings to capture events and monitor network activity.
      • Set up alerts for critical events.
    8. User Authentication (Optional):
      • If applicable, configure user authentication:
        • Integrate with LDAP or RADIUS for centralized user management.
        • Implement two-factor authentication for additional security.
    9. Wireless Configuration (Optional):
      • If the FortiGate 80F has wireless capabilities, configure wireless settings, including SSID, security protocols, and access controls.
    10. Testing:
      • Perform thorough testing to ensure that the firewall is functioning as expected.
      • Test internet access, VPN connections, and the enforcement of security policies.

    HPE DL380 Gen10 Unboxing | Prepare Server to Install in DATACENTER

    Unboxing the HPE DL380 Gen10:

    1. Inspect the Package:
      • Carefully inspect the external packaging for any signs of damage.
      • Ensure that the package includes all the components listed in the packing list.
    2. Open the Box:
      • Use a box cutter or scissors to carefully open the packaging.
    3. Remove Accessories:
      • Take out all the accessories such as power cables, documentation, and any additional components that come with the server.
    4. Inspect the Server:
      • Carefully take the server out of the packaging and inspect it for any physical damage.
      • Ensure that all components, including hard drives, are properly seated.
    5. Documentation:
      • Review the provided documentation, including the quick start guide and any safety information.

    1. iLO Configuration:

    a. Physical Connection:

    1. Connect to the iLO port on the rear of the server using a network cable.
    2. Ensure the iLO port has an IP address on the same network as your management system.

    b. Access iLO Web Interface:

    1. Open a web browser and enter the iLO IP address.
    2. Log in with the default or provided credentials.

    c. iLO Configuration:

    1. Change the default password for security.
    2. Configure network settings as needed.
    3. Enable iLO Advanced features if necessary.

    1. Accessing Smart Array Configuration Utility:

    1. Power on the Server:
      • Ensure all necessary components, including hard drives, are properly installed.
    2. Access RAID Configuration:
      • During the server boot process, press the designated key (e.g., F8) to access the Smart Array Configuration Utility.

    2. Creating a RAID 6 Array:

    1. Select/Create Array:
      • In the Smart Array Configuration Utility, choose an option like “Create Array” or “Manage Arrays.”
    2. Select Drives:
      • Choose the physical drives you want to include in the RAID 6 array. There should be at least four drives for RAID 6.
    3. Configure RAID Level:
      • Select RAID 6 from the available RAID levels.
    4. Set Array Size:
      • Define the size of the RAID array. Keep in mind that RAID 6 requires at least four drives, and usable capacity will be less than the total drive capacity due to the dual parity.
    5. Confirm and Save:
      • Review the configuration and confirm to save the RAID 6 array settings.

    3. Installing an Operating System:

    1. Boot from Installation Media:
      • Insert the installation media for your operating system (e.g., Windows Server, Linux) and boot from it.
    2. Select Installation Drive:
      • During the OS installation process, you will be prompted to select the logical drive created by the RAID 6 configuration.
    3. Complete OS Installation:
      • Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the operating system installation.

    4. Additional RAID 6 Management:

    1. RAID Monitoring:
      • After the OS is installed, monitor the RAID status through the HPE Smart Storage Administrator or other management tools provided by HPE.
    2. Expand or Modify RAID:
      • If needed, you can later expand the RAID 6 array or modify its configuration through the Smart Storage Administrator.

    2. ESXi Installation:

    a. Obtain ESXi Installer:

    1. Download the ESXi ISO image from the VMware website.

    b. Prepare Boot Media:

    1. Create a bootable USB drive with the ESXi installer using tools like Rufus or UNetbootin.

    c. Install ESXi:

    1. Insert the bootable USB drive into the server.
    2. Power on the server and boot from the USB drive.

    d. ESXi Installation Wizard:

    1. Follow the on-screen prompts to install ESXi.
    2. Select the installation disk (usually the local storage on your server).

    e. Configure ESXi:

    1. Set a password for the ESXi host.
    2. Configure management network settings (IP address, subnet mask, gateway, DNS).

    f. Complete Installation:

    1. Allow the ESXi installer to complete the installation process.
    2. Reboot the server.

    3. Post-Installation ESXi Configuration:

    a. Access ESXi Web Interface:

    1. Open a web browser and enter the ESXi host IP address.
    2. Log in with the credentials you set during installation.

    b. Configure Networking:

    1. Verify and configure networking settings as needed.

    c. License ESXi:

    1. Apply a license to your ESXi host if required.

    d. Create Datastores:

    1. Configure storage settings by creating datastores on your server’s storage.

    e. Virtual Machine Management:

    1. Create and manage virtual machines through the ESXi web interface or vSphere Client.

    f. Monitor and Manage:

    1. Monitor the ESXi host health, performance, and other settings through the web interface.

    4. Additional iLO Integration:

    1. Back in the iLO interface, you can integrate iLO with the ESXi host for enhanced management features.
    2. Configure iLO settings to enable remote console access and other management features.

    Attach QNAP iSCSI Disk to Windows | Connect to Storage Without HBA Interface

    Certainly, attaching a QNAP iSCSI disk to a Windows system involves several steps. Below is a general guide, but please note that specific steps may vary depending on the QNAP NAS model and the version of QTS firmware. Always refer to the documentation provided by QNAP for your specific model.

    1. Configure iSCSI on QNAP NAS:

    • Log in to the QNAP NAS web interface.
    • Go to “Control Panel” > “Storage & Snapshots” > “iSCSI Storage.”
    • Create an iSCSI target and specify the settings, such as the target name and access permissions.
    • Create an iSCSI LUN (Logical Unit Number) within the target, specifying its size and other relevant parameters.
    • Note the iSCSI Target IQN (iSCSI Qualified Name) and the IP address of your QNAP NAS.

    2. Connect Windows to the iSCSI Target:

    • On your Windows machine, open the iSCSI Initiator.
      • You can open it by searching for “iSCSI Initiator” in the Start menu.
    • In the iSCSI Initiator Properties window, go to the “Targets” tab.
    • Enter the IP address of your QNAP NAS in the “Target” field and click “Quick Connect.”
    • In the Quick Connect window, select the iSCSI target from the list and click “Connect.”
    • In the Connect to Target window, check the box next to “Enable multi-path” if your QNAP NAS supports it.
    • Click “Advanced Settings” to configure CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) settings if you have set up authentication on your QNAP NAS.
    • Click “OK” to connect to the iSCSI target.

    3. Initialize and Format the iSCSI Disk:

    • Once connected, open the Disk Management tool on your Windows machine.
      • You can open it by searching for “Create and format hard disk partitions” in the Start menu.
    • You should see the new iSCSI disk as an uninitialized disk.
    • Right-click on the uninitialized disk and choose “Initialize Disk.”
    • Right-click on the newly initialized disk and select “New Simple Volume.”
    • Follow the wizard to create a new partition, assign a drive letter, and format the disk with your preferred file system.

    4. Access the iSCSI Disk:

    • After formatting, the iSCSI disk should be accessible through the assigned drive letter.
    • You can now use the iSCSI disk for storage purposes, and it will behave like any other locally attached storage device.

    Remember to follow best practices for iSCSI security, such as enabling CHAP authentication and restricting access to specific IP addresses, especially if your QNAP NAS is accessible over the internet. Always refer to the specific documentation for your QNAP NAS model for accurate and up-to-date instructions.